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RebetikoHistorical, sociological approach
However, increase in population and thickening of work-force in the cities was partly due to refugees’ arrivals from various territories outside liberated4.
are considered direct descendants of the folk songs (dimotika)8 and ecclesiastic music9. Linguistics and musicology characteristics (scales10, meters- rhythms, melodies, idioms, expressions etc.) connected to the memories of earlier times were salvaged through rebetiko. Until 193411 , the most commonly used musical instruments originate from the dimotiko traditional songs (violin, Pontiac Greek lyra, outi, canonaki, santouri, clarion, etc.) and later on the company of bouzouki, baglamas and guitar prevail, which contribute to the import of European spacing in the main line of melody, theoretically non existent in eastern monophonic scales and maintained, though incorrect, to this day.
Their detachment from the functions of the socio-economic system allows them to preserve important elements of their cultural legacy relatively pure. Those elements are reconstructed and channeled through new forms and manners of expression which correlate to their new frame of mind. It appears that in crucial times in history these carriers of tradition become “socially excluded”12 groups which generate the rebetiko music. As time went by, and to the extend that these social groups were absorbed to the prevailing system, elements of tradition were gradually assimilated and replaced by foreign cultural elements projected by the mass media, thus transformed to mass means of forming (or deforming) social conscience. Besides, the media have always been controlled by the ruling classes. Since the middle of the last century, in the “machalades” (neighborhoods) of Smyrna, the alleys of Constantinople, the streets of Syros, the shabby streets of Athens, Piraeus, Thessaloniki, the big cities in America, all over the world where the persecuted Greeks settle, they will create their new folk songs and of course rebetiko songs, which will spread rapidly from the Greeks of Minor Asia to the immigrants of America and much more so to the cities of liberated Greece after 1922.
During the interwar period, this music kind13, although more recent, will flourish and prevail in entertainment as well as in 78 rpm record discography14 which is quickly expanded from 192415 , against the will of its opponents.
In spite of preventive censorship to lyrics and music since 1937, the rebetiko thanks to a number of brilliant creators and performers, prevails in music life even after World War II until the middle 1950’s.
- Generally (history)
- Articles on special topics
- Institutions / Associations / Institutes of studies
- Sound files
- Performers / Composers
- Music Record Sales
- Bibliography / book reviews / book sales
A web site by Stelios Lambropoulos. Most probably the best site on Re(m)betiko: song database for more than 2500 songs, lyrics for at least 500 of them, forum, chat, record and book reviews, history of the rembetiko, bibliography, links to other sites. Also, some photos, word look-up on the lyrics, musicians' profiles (at the moment only for Manolis Chiotis).
A website with articles on rembetiko, a "rembetical time-line" with the most important points in rembetiko's istory, forum, links to other sites on rembetiko and to databases of midi and audio files, small record companies and greek singer's websites. "The Rebetiko Essay" is exclusively in english.
A website on women rembetisses. Profiles of singers, 13 songs in Real Audio, a comprehensive bibliography, and a full discography of Sotiria Bellou.
Profiles of about 30 composers, singers and players, lyrics, photos, history, articles, nicknames, scanned scores in jpg format, 6 mp3 files from rembetika recorded in the USA, and about 40 midi files.
The history of rembetiko
A student's webpage, citing extracts from Elias Petropoulos' essay, Ρεμπέτικα Τραγούδια,εκδόσεις Κέδρος, 1991. (Rembetika Songs, Kedros pub., 1991)
Urban song and rembetiko
In Pan-hellenic School Network's website, on the section concerning Asia Minor and refugees, there is some information on Rembetiko: its history and its connection to the urban song of Smirni and Constantinople (Istanbul).
Urban folk song
History of urban folk song from the years of the Turkish domination to our days. It is a brief one, but quite inspired review of greek music. Also, links to various artists' homepages, music clubs and other stuff.
Rembetes and tough-guys of the 19th century
In DioDinos website, a bouzouki-maker in Astoria, Νew Υork, there is an extract from the book Rebetika songs from the old Greek underground edited by Katharine Butterworth and Sara Schneider, Athens: Komboloi, 1975, on the early years of rembetiko and its connection to the rembetes and tough-guys of the nineteenth century.
A paragraph on rembetiko in MusicWeb Encyclopaedia of Popular Music with some essential elementary information on its history, performers, instruments and recordings.
Catalogue of articles on rembetiko
In the website of rebetiko.gr, you can find this page with many articles on rembetiko. Many of them are of great interest and/or have been published in old newspapers and magazines.
Articles by the Institute of Rebetology
Articles of presentations / announcements made at the "Hydra Rebetiko Conference", or provided by their authors for use. Articles by M. Dragoumis, N. Georgiadis, D. Ifantis, E. Emery, H. Bradley, G. Holst-Warhaft et al.
Articles on rembetiko
Articles on E. Papayiannopoulou, Y. Katsaros, "hashish-related" songs, tough-guys, etc.
"The tird come-back of the rembetika"
Article in Makedonia / Thessaloniki newspaper on the revival of interest on rembetiko as manifested mainly during the 90's, in tavernas and other places who provided music of this style, in the re-publication and re-release of original material (records), and also on new bibliography and arthography.
"An Akritas [frontiers-man] that became Rembetis"
Book-review, published in "ΤΑ ΝΕΑ" newspaper, of Nearchos Georgiadis's, a Cypriot writer and critic, work entitled "Ο ακρίτας που έγινε ρεμπέτης".
"Rembetiko was not born in society's margins"
Review, published in "ΤΑ ΝΕΑ" newspaper on 20-05-2000, of Panayiotis L. Kounadis' book "Εις ανάμνησιν στιγμών ελκυστικών", (Κατάρτι, 2000), [In memoriam of attractive moments, pub. Katarti, 2000], according to which the rembetiko was not marginal, nor hashish-related, but a folk song of high artistic and cultural value, that started from Middle-Ages song and developed especially in Greek centres of Asia Minor (Smirni - Constantinople) from the early nineteenth century to the Greco-turkish war's destructive end in 1922.
Articles on Vassilis Tsitsanis
as well as other newspaper articles on rembetiko and other interests of the page's owner Andreas Hatziprokopis:
http://www.soi.city.ac.uk/~livantes/ARTHRA/Tsitsanis1.html ως Tsitsanis8.html
Rembetes and Rembetiko song
Article by Vassilis Avgerinos, in the website of the Municipal Radio of Xanthi, with some remarkable observations.
Thessaloniki in songs
Artcile by Pinelopi Stoforopoulou, Margarita Chasapi and Liana Fotiadou on the city of Thessaloniki as it has been sung in various songs, mostly rembetika. It also includes entire lyrics of some songs, as well as some photographs.
Old and new, myth and reality in Vassilis Tsitsanis' work
By Ilias voliotis-Kapetanakis, published in the cultural magazine "Νέα Εποχή" [Nea Epohi / New Epoch], Issue 3 (250), 1998, pp. 28-31
Social, Political and Artistic biomes of Vassilis Tsitsanis' child- and teenage-hood
A text by Nearhos Georgiadis in the cultural magazine "Νέα Εποχή" [Nea Epohi / New Epoch], Issue (250), 1998, pp. 11-15. There is an extract from Georgiadis study on Tsitsanis who was to be published soon.
The early years of gramophone companies in Greece
Text by Paul Vernon who traces the roots of greek record industry, through the history of companies like Gramophone Company, Odeon and Columbia, focusing on rembetiko song.
Greek emigration to the United States (1900-1925)
A text by Vassiliki Boravou, Sofia Tavellari and Evaggelia Trontsiou in "Virtual School, The sciences of Education Online", Vol. 1, isuue 3, December 1998, with very valuable information and photographs on the immigration of Greeks to the USA, in the early twentieth century. The last paragraph deals with rembetiko song in USA.
Institute of Rebetology
based in London, has organised three conferences so far, and provides articles and essays on rembetiko, as well as links to other, relevant to the rembetiko, sites.
Rembetiko for schools
In the website of the project ΟΔΥΣΣΕΑΣ [ULYSSES] of the Greek Paedagogical Institute, a zip file with four proposed seminars (one on rembetiko) for the music lessons in schools.
The Soura and...other related stuff page
16 rembetika songs in Real Audio.
The webpage of 'Salonikios'
Rembetika songs in sound files of low sample rate in Real Audio and mp3. However, the compilation is very good and it laso includes songs from early recordings. There are also songs from Smirni (Asia Minor) and traditional folk, and profiles of about 30 composers and players.
Among other stuff, 6 mp3 sound files of rembetika of the USA, and about 40 midi files.
A study by Konstantinos Vardakidis and Andreas Mourkoyiannis: historical outlines of rembetiko, unfortunately without references to other texts, and biographies of Vamvakaris, Papaioannou and Tsitsanis.
Yiannis Eiziridis (Yovan Tsaoush)
Webpage on Yovan Tsaoush (1896-1942), immigrant from Asia Minor to Piraeus, who was a well-respected composer and player at the third decade of the twentieth century, his most famous song being, probably, "Πέντε μάγκες στον Περαία" [Five tough-guys in Piraeus].
Articles on rembetiko
On E. Papayiannopoulou, Y. Katsaros, K. Skarvelis, D. Semsis, V. Tsitsanis, Y. Papaioannou.
Panorama of rembetiko
An FM Records release, supervised by the composer Petros Tampouris, and consisting of a series of 12 boxes (each containing three cassetes) with the original recordings of many songs.
Commercial website for ordering CDs online.
Blow up - The music stores
Electronic catalogue with music record sales. There are a lot of rembetika titles.
Saxon Music Store
This record label has many CD releases of rembetika, which you can find under the following sub-sections: Κλασικά, Σμυρναίικα, Απαγορευμένα, Σύγχρονοι εκτελεστές, and συλλογές [Classic, from Smirni, Prohibited, Contemporary Performers, and Compilations].
"Rembetiko" - Music for the theatrical performance
Review of the 2-CD compilation, with Thesia Panayiotou's music / Kostas Ferris' lyrics for the musico-theatrical version of the film "Rembetiko". This was initially released by Nitro Music and is now exclusively produced by Victory Music.
Rembetes and rembetiko song
Book-review of Pεμπέτες και ρεμπέτικο τραγούδι by «Πλέθρον» [Plethron pub.], edited by the associate professor Nikos Kotaridis. The eight texts included in the book have been written by MA graduate students.
On a bibliography of rembetiko (1873-2001)
review of this book by Kostas Vlissidis (Eκδόσεις του Eικοστού Πρώτου [Ekdosis tou Ikostou Protou], 2002, pp. 302). There are 2.396 bibliographical entries which have been enhanced by the writer's additional information, comments and apt remarks.
Thessaloniki and Rembetiko
a brief mention to this book by D. Christianopoulos, which deals with the relationship of the city of Thessaloniki with Rembetiko song and its performers, as well as with the impact of this song to people's habbits and customs.
In memoriam of attractive moments vol. A - texts on rembetiko
Book review of Εις ανάμνησιν στιγμών ελκυστικών (Κατάρτι [Katarti pub.]) by Panayiotis Kounadis, which includes texts of his published in numerous newspapers, magazines or record booklets, between 1974 and 1991.
Institute of Rebetology
Webpage with bibliography, by the Institute of Rebetology, London.
Film-review of the homonyme film by Kostas Ferris, and photographs in jpg.
The Famous Old Greek Songs database
Database with more than 6000 old greek song with information on composer, lyricist, performers. There are lyrics also for some, very few, of them, and around 100 midi files of greek songs.
Rembetiko and Asia Minor population
This is a review of a course by Maria Papapavlou, offered at the Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, entitled "Dance, identity and ethnic groups: Aesthetics as a code of discussing cultural diversity". Amongst other cases, she examines rembetiko as a coalescence of the expression of the cultural diversity of Asia Minor immigrants.
The roots of Rembetiko - Speech 06-02-02
some comments on a Apostolis A. Papaioannou's speech concerning the roots of rembetiko in the consciousness of greek people and of rembetiko's long journey in greek history .